Plugging in your EV at home into a standard 240V AC wall socket - via an EVSE - whilst it's convenient, it is the slowest method of charging possible - offering only about 2kW of charging power through a normal 10A socket. This method will be able to 'top up' your charge, however it is not realistic to rely on it for more than an average daily commute.
To work out how long you will need to charge your car to travel a certain distance - take the charging capacity in kW as the same value as the kilometres you’ll get from 10 minutes of charging. For example, if you are using a 2kW Level 1, charger (standard household socket) you will get around two kilometres for every 10 minutes of charging.
The average vehicle in New South Wales travels approx. 13,272 kms a year or 36.4 to 70 kms a day (www.budgetdirect.com.au). You would therefore need to charge your EV every night for up to 3 to 6 hours, on a standard 2kW Level 1, charger, for just average daily use.
For a further distance comparison, a return trip from Brisbane City to Noosa (plus a bit of exploring) would be approx. a 350km trip. Utilising a standard 2kW Level 1, charger, your vehicle would require an uninterrupted charge for approx. 29+ hours - that is, if the battery capacity allowed for it. Thus leaving your reliant on access to DC Fast Charging infrastructure.
To calculate how long it would take to fully charge your vehicle, just divide the battery capacity of the vehicle by the kW of the Charger that you are using, to gain an approximate time. For example:
The good news is that there are quicker options available to you, by installing a Level 2 AC charger (supplied by EV Hub), which will increase the power and enable you to charge your EV faster.
Using the Tesla Model S 100D, with the 100kWh battery, as an example:
Note - A one hour charge, whilst shopping at Harvey Normans or Bunnings, from the award-winning EVBox Iqon will provide enough charge to drive approx. another 119km.
These are the public DC chargers (AC & DC) for quick turnaround petrol stations and service centres, that are crucial in making EVs viable for driving long distances with little downtime for charging. Rapid charging capacity ranges from 50kW DC and ultra-rapid chargers with a 350kW DC capacity.
It’s worth noting that lower capacity EVs, such as plug-in hybrids and the Nissan Leaf, Hyundai Ioniq and Renault Zoe, are unable to use ultra-rapid charging, but are okay with up to 50kW charging. Even the higher-capacity models such as Tesla Model S, Mercedes-Benz EQC and Audi E-Tron will have a maximum charging capacity of around 110-150kW.
Note - Your car and charger speak to each other via the cable to only draw the maximum charge capacity.
In the context of our example:
There are a number of websites available that can assist you to understand the following:
One such website that could assist is - EVCompare
Petrol and diesel-powered cars are rated by how many litres of fuel they use per 100km (litres/100km). With electric vehicles it’s how many kilowatt hours (kWh) used per 100km.
The lower the kWh/100km value, the less you’ll need to spend to travel a given distance. With power also being priced per kWh, figuring out how much an electric car’s energy will cost is as simple as checking your electricity rate.
For example, the Nissan Leaf consumes 10kWh/100km. If you’re paying 0.28c per kWh (an average grid connected price during peak periods within Victoria) it will cost you $2.80 (10kW x 0.28) to charge it enough to travel 100km. The Leaf has a claimed 400km range, which means a full charge will cost you $11.20 ($2.80 x 4).
The IEC 61851-1 standard, that deals with electric vehicle conductive charging systems, describes four different charging modes:
Mode 1: With this mode, the EV is directly connected to a household socket. Mode 1 is the simplest possible charging mode and does not support any communication between the EV and the charge point.
Mode 2: Connecting an EV to the socket-outlet for a long time with no control and safety functions can increase the risk of electric shock. To solve this problem, specialists developed charging Mode 2 that uses a special type of charging cable equipped with an in-cable control and protection device (IC-CPD), to perform the required control and safety functions. The EVSE (special cable - see image) can perform functional switching as it detects connection to the EV and analyses its charging power demand.
Mode 3 (Level 2 Chargers): The AC current from the charging station is applied to the on-board circuitry to charge the battery. Several control and protection functions are employed to guarantee public safety. These include verifying the protective earth connection and the connection between the cable and the EV. Moreover, this mode can adjust the charging current to the maximum current capability of the cable assembly.
Mode 4 (Level 3 Chargers): This is the only charging mode that incorporates an off-board charger with a DC output. The DC current is delivered directly to the battery and the on-board charger is bypassed. The high power level involved in this mode mandates a higher level of communication and stricter safety features.
For AC Charging, the industry are now using the Type 2 Mennekes plug. The earlier version, the Type 1 J1772 plug are still used by some vehicles - i.e. 1st generation LEAFs, iMievs and BMWi3. Adaptors are available for Type 1 to Type 2, and visa versa.
Typically AC charging is done at the lower Levels 1 or 2. When you do this there is an AC to DC inverter inside the car that converts the AC power into DC power allowing it be stored in the battery.
A very important point with EV’s is that they can charge via both AC and DC. The battery inside is DC but depending on where you’re charging you might charge it with AC or DC.
Currently you have to use a different plug for lower speed Level 1/2 charging and the higher DC Level 3 charging. The industry in Australia is moving towards Type 2 Mennekes as the standard AC charging plug in Australia, with a mixture of CHAdeMO and CCS 2 for DC charging.
General Motors is bringing back the Hummer “super truck”, but this time in all-electric, zero emissions form – and reservations are already open. For a princely sum of $A159,358.
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The Hummer EV Edition 1 will also come with an industry-topping 800 volt electric architecture that will allow it to achieve charging rates of 350kW – so far the only vehicle technically capable of this is the Porsche Taycan (although it is software limited to 270kW).
Introducing GMC Hummer EV, the world’s first all-electric supertruck.